CHAIR: Ina Miloglav
9:20 – 9:40
KEYNOTE SPEAKER:Marta Mileusnić - Geological materials in archaeological findings
Department of Mineralogy, Petrology and Mineral resources, Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum
Engineering, University of Zagreb
Geological materials are significant part of archaeological findings. They can be found
unchanged or slightly changed (eg. in the form of jewellery, simple tools, pigments).
On the other hand, they can be significantly altered forming man-made materials
(eg. glass, ceramics).
The main goals of this presentation are: (1) to classify different geological materials such
as minerals, rocks, soils, sediments and ores, and present their usage in ancient times; (2)
to describe their occurrences and availability in the nature with emphasis on the area of
today’s Croatia and south-eastern Europe; (3) to describe their characteristics which made
them raw materials, as well as their changes during technological processes; and (4) to
describe tools for provenance determinations.
Purpose of the presentation is to acquaint archaeological audience with the possibilities
and problems of provenance analysis.
9:45 – 10:05
KEYNOTE SPEAKER:Michela Spataro - Archaeometric analysis of pottery as a tool for in-depth technological and social-economic
insights and changes
Department of Conservation and Scientific Research, The British Museum
Archaeometric analyses of ceramics, such as thin-section petrography, are used to answer both practical and theoretical archaeological research questions. Various types
of qualitative and quantitative data can be obtained by different techniques. In this
paper the importance of visual data, beyond macroscopic examination with the naked eye,
will be discussed. Micro-visual data are essential to the understanding of ceramic technology, e.g. the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images allows us to examine the
microstructure of the ceramic paste, which is too fine to be identified using simple optical
microscopy with a polarised microscope. This type of examination will provide information on firing temperature, interlayers and interfaces present in the ceramic body, which
cannot be visualised using other chemical techniques. In addition, the option to analyse
quantitatively regions of a sample that can be selected visually provides a more complete
understanding of the archaeological material. The accuracy and precision of quantitative
analytical data is essential.
10:10 – 10:30
KEYNOTE SPEAKER:Katalin T. Biró - The case of Databases: Welcome to the jungle
Department of Archaeology, Hungarian National Museum
Databases are obviously indispensable in archaeometry – as well as any other field
of science. Like it or not, databases are everywhere, in civil life, administration, libraries, museums and last but not least, science. Some of them are private, even
confidential, at least, sensitive. The situation was sort of easy with stand-alone personal
databases and public databases provided „as it is”; by now, it is much more complicated.
Databases are born, fostered and die daily. Typically, any project brings to life a database
(one at least) that are left orphaned with the end of project and funds. Long established
cataloguing functions are at the mercy of new platforms and uncontrolled changes in software background. Clones and redundant databases crop up everywhere while the data
that we really need are always somewhere else.
Last but not least: copyright issues. Who owns the data in a database? After 200 years of
cataloguing tradition? And who is entitled to change/modify wisdom and folly of centuries? This short communication will obviously not solve the problem but at least hope to
bring some awareness concerning our difficulties.
10:35 – 10:55 Coffe break
CHAIR: Rajna Šošić Klindžić
10:55 – 11:15Miroslav Vuković - Accuracy of photogrammetric image based 3D models
Department for Archaeology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb
The documentational value of image based models has been proven in numerous
cases. But the photogrammetric aspect of the model still inspires some heated debates. As there are numerous ways of referencing an imaged based model, the goal
of this paper was to test them all out and to gain an insight into the exact accuracy of each
method of reference. Some methods of reference require expensive geodesic equipment and complex webs of ground control points, while others are conducted by using a small
number of ground control points and a simple measuring tape. Depending on the object
or site, the method for referencing an image based model should be different. While documenting single objects, milimeter point accuracy is extremelly important, in documentation of larger sites centimeter point accuracy is usually more than enough. Deviations in
accuracy should be acceptable up to the point where they can in no way interfere with the
archaeological interpretation. Depending on the object or the complexity of the site different methods and aproaches can be used for the accurate referencing of 3D models. How
accurate do these models need to be, and how much will this level of accuracy affect the
documentational value of the archaeological excavations, are just some of the questions
which this paper aims to answer.
11:20 – 11:40 Goran Skelac - The results of tests on the precision in using UAVs for 3D scanning and animation of
In the last 5 years the use of Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs or multirotors) for the documentation of archaeological sites has become a useful tool or a technological innovation
that has become almost unavoidable for many archaeological purposes.
In this presentation are the results of tests and research of two UAV platforms after the
different sets of data were collected at the same site. Field tests and postprocessing is carried out on: a) the ability of UAVs to plan flight routes (way points) for capturing photo and
video; b) degree of geodetic precision of flying and capturing; c) resolutions of photos on
the ground; d) the degree of precision in making 3D or elevation models. Number of processing capabilities of the results for making animation of archaeological sites are tested.
At the end, a brief overview of the current state of the regulations for flying drones and
taking aerial photography is commented.
11:45 – 12:05David Badovinac - Possibilities of 3D photogrammetry in documenting of archaeological sites
Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana
Paper explores the possibilities of documenting archaeological stratigraphic elements
with the help of three dimensional models, derived from methods of 3D photogrammetry namely technique of structure from motion (S.f.M.). The paper proposes SfM
as the main documenting tool of archaeological excavations which builds a large dataset of all excavated layers and then uses the 3D surfaces, firstly for extracting traditional documentation (drawings, photo mosaic and measurements of features), secondly for recreating 3d textured models of excavated volumes and finally explores the impact of proposed
documentation for presentation, publishing and archiving.
The paper also compares and presents the difference in terms of excavation effectiveness
and costs of the traditional documenting with the new that derives all the data from postprocessing and compares the results in terms of data accuracy and density.
12:10 – 12:30Jugoslav Pendić (1), Nenad Tasić (2), Marko Aleksić (3), Andrej Žitňan (4), Zuzana Rejdovianová (5), Jiří Hrubý (6) & Daniel Hlásek (7) - Surface reconstruction from images - experience from Neolithic site of Vinča
(1) Center for Digital Archaeology, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Belgrade, Serbia,
(2) Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Belgrade, Serbia,
(3) Central Institute for Conservation in Belgrade, Serbia,
(4, 5) VIA MAGNA, Martin, Slovakia,
(6, 7) TerraVerita, Prague, Czech Republic
Growing field of 3D reconstruction and modeling of features in and outside of excavation trenches has been present in archaeological methodology as an active factor
for several years now. As it became more and more available and affordable, practitioners of this approach started to face with questions revolving possibilities of use, reliability of reconstruction, production of stabile and standardized workflow and organizing
and sharing of the data produced in such manner.
Vinča project has a long tradition in use of advanced technologies for 3D recording. For the
last several campaigns of excavation and site activities related to further advancement of
our understanding of the site and improvement of our methodological approach, research
time was invested into 3-dimensional feature reconstruction from images, both from archive imagery and from images collected with predesigned intention to be used in such
manner. Thus created reconstructions were combined and compared with active sensor
collected data, in order to estimate pros and cons of all methods.
Huge part of these works were done with expert evaluation and cooperation of EU funded
project of CONPRA - Contributing Preventive Archaeology. Here we aim to present a portion of results of these joint works, having in mind to address issues that rise from this
particular part of fieldwork methodology.
12:35 – 12:50 Coffe break
12:50 – 13:10Ján Zachar, Andrej Žitňan & Milan Horňák - Digital methods of documentation of immovable cultural heritage - limitations and
VIA MAGNA Ltd.
Progressive methods using digital means with an increasing intensity and accuracy are
currently leading tools which could be used for the documentation of historic buildings, archaeological sites and urban structures. Their benefits tend to be accentuated, which include non-destructive measurement and high efficiency especially in the
case of quick record of an endangered object. Beside the application of terrestrial laser
scanning the recent boom of computer vision programs that combine a Structure from
Motion (SfM) approach with dense Multi-View Stereo (MVS) algorithms makes the extraction of 3D data from photographs accessible for non-professional photogrammetrists.
Because of their straightforward workflow and moderate cost, these SfM+MVS packages
do not require extensive photogrammetric and computer vision knowledge of the user
nor the geometrical properties of the scenes. As such, they became a common part of the
documentation practice in many research and commercial fields, including cultural heritage monitoring and preservation.
Presented paper aims at pointing out particular problems by image based modeling documentation. Especially issues of flat surface 3D photogrammetry is presented. The authors
demonstrate the issue on several case studies focusing upon architectural features, especially walls covered with fine one color plaster. The question is treated within different
SW environments. Possible solutions are presented as well. Furthermore limitations and
errors in workflow from in-situ capture through post-processing using various software to
the sometimes illogical choice of final output are given in the fewer cases.
13:15 – 13:35Andreja Kudelić (1), Filomena Sirovica (2), Ina Miloglav (3) & Dinko Tresić Pavičić (4) - Systematic field survey of upper Podravina, Croatia: Methods for collection, storage and
analysis of data
(1) Institute of Archaeology, Zagreb,
(2) Archaeological Museum in Zagreb,
(3) Department of
Archaeology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences University of Zagreb,
(4) Kaducej d.o.o., Split, Croatia
During the last decades, a large quantity of archaeological material was collected and
documented in the region of upper Podravina, Croatia. The amount and distribution
of finds represent the evidence of intensive inhabitation of this area in all time periods. However, previous studies were mostly focused on topographically significant locations, which opened a need for upgrading the existing data and widening the understanding of their spatio-temporal interrelations in the landscape. For this reason, systematic
field survey of the area was carried out during the fall of 2014 and 2015, with the objective to collect a wide range of data on spatial distribution of surface archaeological material.
As such studies generate a large amount of digital data, modern methods of their storage
and processing, strengthened by the research power of computer systems for spatial data
management, can enable various studies of material distribution and thus provide enough
data for a detailed analysis of regional land-use patterns in all represented periods.
13:40 – 14:10Martina Dubolnić Glavan (1), Igor Kulenović (2) & Neda Kulenović Ocelić (3) - Sites Twice Removed – a Case Study From Dalmatia
(1) Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, The Institute for Historical Sciences in Zadar,
(2) Department of Tourism and Communication Studies University of Zadar, Croatia
(3) Faculty of Arts University of Ljubljana, Slovenia
Field survey has become a standard nondestructive method in archaeological research.
The purpose of this type of research is not just to discover or merely record new sites.
It is a field method by which data is collected for a vast variety of analytical procedures. Field survey is commonly carried out in cultivated areas, which allows for good
visibility of archaeological sites. What if a field survey is carried out in an area which is no
longer cultivated? Is it even possible to discern archaeological sites in such conditions?
The specific Mediterranean land use and land division both enable and constrain visibility
of archeological sites in areas which are no longer under cultivation. The kind of visibility
we faced is not the kind one would expect in a ‘‘conventional” field survey. This specific
land use and land division includes field clearance and depositing various materials on plot
boundaries. Field clearance and the deposition of the material result in the construction
of dry stone boundary walls and clearance cairns. Archaeological finds are treated in the
same manner as the rest of the material being deposited on boundary walls and clearance
cairns and as such they are part and parcel of these structures. These specific agricultural
practices, on the one hand, facilitate visibility and detection of archaeological sites in areas
which are no longer cultivated.
At the same time the very same agricultural practices produce a tertiary archeological context which generates specific issues in data analysis and data interpretation. The specific
nature of the site formation and archeological record required a formulation of analytical
procedures aimed at “translating” traditional agricultural practices into archeological sites
with their designated attributes such as size, type etc.
14:15 – 14:35Marko Ceković - Building spatial databases with AutoCAD and open source GIS software: a simple workflow
iGEON programme, University of Lund
The use of CAD software for the purpose of archaeological documentation has become so prevalent that the programs like Autodesk’s AutoCAD have become almost
a universal standard. Even though documenting spatial data with AutoCAD has its
advantages the program doesn’t work well with the large quantities of attribute data that
archaeological excavations produce and is not ideal for building a comprehensive spatial
database. AutoCAD Map 3D is a better option for combining the two datasets but because
of its complicated workflow and steep learning curve it is not the best option for the average user.
In recent years the use of open source GIS software has become more and more common,
as archaeologists try to avoid the problems associated with proprietary software and data
formats. Presented here is a simple workflow for building a spatial database from existing AutoCAD drawing files using tools and additional plugins available in the QunatumGIS
software package. Special attention will be brought to cleaning and converting vector data,
transforming the data to the new HTRS96/TM reference coordinate system and combining
it with external relational databases.
14:40 – 14:55 Coffe break
CHAIR: Nikola Vukosavljević
14:55 – 15:15 Ines Krajcar Bronić, Nada Horvatinčić, Jadranka Barešić, Andreja Sironić & Damir Borković - Radiocarbon dating of paper and parchment
Laboratory for Low-level Radioactivities, Division of Experimental Physics, Ruđer Bošković Institute
Absolute dating of object of cultural heritage and art is one of the most important
issues in art history studies and in archaeology. Accurate dating is essential for valuation of original objects of arts, for differentiation between the original works and
later imitations and/or frauds and for recognition of reparation and restauration works.
Radiocarbon dating (14C dating) method can be applied for dating materials of biogenic
origin, such as wood, charcoal, bones, grains, paper, parchment, textile, etc. The range of
14C age determination spans from 19th century up to ~60,000 years in the past. Even the
anthropogenic influence on the natural 14C distribution during 20th century can be used for
recognition of frauds.
Due to very low natural 14C concentration the radiocarbon dating method requires special
techniques for chemical preparation of samples and measurement of 14C. Particular care
has to be taken for sample collection and/or storage as well as during sample pretreatment and chemical preparation. The accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurement technique enables analysis of very small amount of samples, e.g. micro-sized samples containing a few milligrams of carbon, or less, and is therefore applicable to various objects of
Here we present several results of 14C dating of paper from Ahdnama document and from
manuscript Fojnica Armorial (Fojnički grbovnik) from the Franciscan Monastery in Fojnica,
Bosnia and Herzegovina, and parchment fragments of two manuscripts with liturgical texts
in Latin from the Archives of Vojvodina, Novi Sad, Serbia. Special attention will be paid to
the interpretation of calibrated ages and the meaning of the radiocarbon dates. One has
to keep in mind that radiocarbon dating gives the age of material and not the time of the
creation of the art work, and that the creation of the art work cannot precede the formation of the material.
15:20 – 15:40 Antonela Barbir (1) & Ivor Karavanić (2) - Testing natural vs. human modification of lithics
(1) Ambruševa 13/1, Zagreb, Croatia,
(2) Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Humanities
and Social Sciences University of Zagreb, Croatia
This paper offers a discussion of criteria for lithic atributes that distinguish between
human and natural causes of chert modification. The approach is based on various
criteria, including technological properties, metric data, and microscopic analysis of
damage patterns, among others. Emphasis is made on measurements of sphericity and
roundness, as these have proved to have a great potental in distinguishing natural and human modifications. Comparison between open-air, underwater, and cave sites allows an
insight into differential natural factors that could affect damage patterns.
15:45 – 16:05 Mario Gavranović (1) & Mathias Mehofer (2) - Local Forms and regional distributions - metallurgical analysis of Late Bronze objects from
(1) Institut für Orientalische und Europäische Archäologie, Österreichische Akademie der
Wissenschaften, Wien, Austria,
(2) Vienna Institute for Archaeological Science, Archäologiezentrum, Wien, Austria
Examinating the Late Bronze Age find spectra in Bosnia-Herzegovina it becomes obvious, that the archaeological indicators (e.g. the number of casting moulds or the appearance of the local forms) are suggesting a strong increase of bronze production.
However systematic archeometallurgical analysis were hitherto lacking. Therefore the
main objective of the project is to examine and establish possible connections between local copper ore sources and domestic bronze metallurgy by analytical means. The first
data set involved 91 samples of bronze objects, ingots and local copper ores, including
material from transregional, regional and local distributions. They were found in three different contexts (settlements, graves and hoards), dating between the 12th and 9th century
BC. After a first analysis using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), a group of 30 archeologically and metallurgically significant samples was selected and additionally examined by
EDXRF analyses to determine the trace element composition of each single artefact. Based
on the so gained results, lead isotope analyses will be carried out on selected artefacts at
the Curt Engelhorn Centre for Archaeometry Mannheim, to get a deeper insight into the
provenance of the metal used. As a first conclusion we can postulate, that dominantly
chalcopyritic ores were processed to produce the copper used. Furthermore it is visible
that the tin concentration is changing over time. The results indicate several groups in
terms of chemical compositions, which will be discussed in the lecture.
It is the first time that such systematic investigations have been conducted on Late Bronze
Age artefacts from Bosnia-Herzegovina. The paper will present the first results of this analyses conducted in a cooperation between VIAS (Vienna Institute for Archaeological Science, University Vienna), OREA (Institute for Oriental and European Archaeology, Austrian
Academy of Sciences) and regional museums in Doboj and Travnik (Bosnia-Herzegovina).
Predrag Novaković & Darja Grosman
Opening of the exibithion Tragovi prošlosti/Traces of the past – ArchaeoLandscapes project